Recruits who answered these kinds of questions in a way that could be taken to mean that they suffered psychiatric disturbance were detained How personality is studied and assessed further questioning and evaluation.
In the interview designed for use in research, face-to-face contact between an interviewer and interviewee is directed toward eliciting information that may be relevant to particular practical applications under general study or to those personality theories or hypotheses being investigated.
Self-report tests The success that attended the use of convenient intelligence tests in providing reliable, quantitative numerical indexes of individual ability has stimulated interest in the possibility of devising similar tests for measuring personality.
Some investigators have sought to derive indexes or predictions of future behaviour from responses to inkblots and have checked, for example, to see if anxiety and hostility as inferred from content analyses of verbal responses are related to favourable or unfavourable response to psychotherapy.
It has received impetus from the growing evidence that thought processes and the content of thoughts are related to emotions and behaviour. The aim of the interview is to gather information, and the adequacy of the data gathered depends in large part on the questions asked by the interviewer.
The Rorschach Inkblot Test The Rorschach inkblots were developed by a Swiss psychiatrist, Hermann Rorschachin an effort to reduce the time required in psychiatric diagnosis.
In its development efforts were made to achieve convenience in administration and scoring and to overcome many of the known defects of earlier personality inventories. Indeed, many of these problems first received widespread attention in research on the MMPI, and research on this and similar inventories has significantly advanced understanding of the whole discipline of personality testing.
Among its ostensibly face-valid items were these: Cattell made a distinction between source and surface traits. Shields found that monozygotic identical twins were significantly more alike on the Introvert — Extrovert E and Psychoticism P dimensions than dizygotic non-identical twins.
Many other omnibus personality inventories are also used in applied settings and in research. A teacher, for example, might be asked to rate students on the degree to which the behaviour of each reflects leadership capacity, shyness, or creativity.
It is conceivable that two people might be quite similar in all respects except for their tendency toward acquiescence.
The test is used to identify a person's emotions, motives, and problems. Introverts on the other hand lie at the other end of this scale, being quiet and reserved. In the revision, the inventory itself was modified to improve clarity, update content, and delete items that might be objectionable to some respondents.
Therefore, the study indicated that individuals with a very strict upbringing by critical and harsh parents were most likely to develop an authoritarian personality.
There are also questionnaires to assess the directions people give themselves while working on a task and their theories about why things happen as they do. These are recordings of response frequencies in particular situations before any treatment or intervention has been made.
Perhaps the most significant methodological advance to be found in the MMPI was the attempt on the part of its developers to measure tendencies to respond, rather than actual behaviour, and to rely but little on assumptions of face validity.
An example of the latter case would be where scores on a measure of test anxiety—that is, the feeling of tenseness and worry that people experience before an exam—might be used to divide people into groups according to how upset they get while taking exams.
Page 1 of 2. Some observations do not lend themselves to quantification as readily as do simple counts of motor behaviour such as the number of times a worker leaves his lathe to go to the restroom. Neurotic individuals have an ANS that responds quickly to stress.
Such analyses, like those of TAT, contain a subjective element. Eysenck argues that this is because they inherit an under aroused nervous system and so seek stimulation to restore the level of optimum stimulation.
Their origins lie in the early history of personality measurement, when most tests were constructed on the basis of so-called face validity; that is, they simply appeared to be valid. For this reason the inventory has proved particularly popular with those who have strong doubts about the eventual validity that many theoretical formulations will show in connection with personality measurement after they have been tested through painstaking research.
It involves the administration of a series of 45 inkblots, the subject being permitted to make only one response per card. Projective techniques One group of assessment specialists believes that the more freedom people have in picking their responses, the more meaningful the description and classification that can be obtained.
This suggests that social factors are also important.
Traits predispose one to act in a certain way, regardless of the situation. Through this position, he compiled a battery of questions about behavior, which he later applied to soldiers who were being treated for neurotic disorders at the hospital Eysenck Chapter 2 How is Personality Studied and Assessed?
I Subjective Assessment Measurement that relies on interpretation Weaknesses • Different observes may make different judgments Strengths • Complex phenomena may be examined and valuable insight gained II Reliability The consistency of scores that are expected to be the same Test-retest reliability • Measure of consistency over time.
Personality arises from within and makes us who we are. Learn more about how psychologists define personality, study it, and why it is so important. A method of assessing personality by applying personality theories to the study and analysis of diaries, letters, and other personal records.
It is one of the few ways to achieve a comprehensive understanding of an individual across time; can be a very rich source of information.
Types of Personality Measures:Demographics and Lifestyle Uses information about a person’s age, place of birth, gender, family size, etc. Can help researchers understand people based on. Personality – is the unique way in which each individual th.0inks, acts, and feels throughout life.
* Character – value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior. * Character – value judgments of a person’s moral and ethical behavior. The degree of consistency between the results of the same test taken on different occasions.Download